The IDM assesses individual deprivation using 15 key dimensions of life that women and men with lived experience of poverty say matter.
By interviewing multiple adult members of the same household, the IDM helps to reveal inequality within households where it exists.
The importance of looking inside households is illustrated by this example of a household in Fiji. This data was collected by the Fiji Bureau of Statistics, which undertook an IDM study in Fiji with IWDA. The figure below shows the extent of deprivation experienced by different individuals in one sampled household. ‘Difficulties’ refers to the extent to which the person experiences functional difficulties (the IDM uses the Washington Group questions to identify disability and enable disaggregation of data by disability). Such differences are hidden when poverty is measured at the household level.
How the IDM works
The IDM assesses individual deprivation in relation to 15 key economic and social aspects of life. These were identified through participatory research with more than 3000 individuals with lived experience of poverty across six countries.
Each dimension is measured using a number of indicators. The indicators seek key information that is easily and readily collected, drawing on the best current measurement thinking, and are already well validated wherever possible. Indicators capture both access and achievement. For example the Health Dimension indicators are Health Status, Health Care Access and Health Care Quality.
Data for these indicators is collected by asking individuals specific, concrete questions. For example, the Health Status indicator asks about the last injury or illness, whether this caused a work absence or affected usual duties, and the length of this interruption.
Responses to questions are measured on a 0-4 scale, from extremely deprived through to not deprived. It is not enough to know that people are poor. The nature and intensity of a person’s poverty influences what it will take for them to move out of poverty.
An individual’s score on each question contributes to an overall dimension score. This score identifies the extent of deprivation in that dimension on a 0-4 scale. Dimension scores can also be added to generate an overall score out of 100. This score shows an individual’s overall level of deprivation on a 0-4 scale, from extremely deprived through to not deprived.
The IDM can be used to give an overall picture of deprivation and to explore the specific deprivations that are contributing to poverty.
Because the IDM collects information about 15 dimensions of life from a single individual, it makes it possible to see the relationship between different dimensions. The IDM also collects information about age, sex, sociocultural background, household size, and geography and screens for disability using the Washington Group questions on disability, making it possible to see how deprivation is related to these factors and how these factors intersect to affect deprivation.
The IDM offers new insights into poverty and inequality, including gender inequality.
- It assesses poverty at the individual level, enabling accurate disaggregation of data by sex, age, disability, ethnicity, religion, geographic location and more.
- It considers a wider range of factors as relevant to measuring poverty, assessing 15 key economic and social dimensions including some especially important for revealing gender disparity (e.g. voice in the community, time-use, family planning, personal relationships).
- The IDM can be sex-disaggregated across 15 dimensions of life relevant to women and men experiencing poverty, generating a poverty-relevant gender equity measure.
- Because the IDM collects data on 15 dimensions from each individual (as opposed to using existing cross-sectional data) it can reveal the impact of intersecting deprivations and inform targeting of deprivations impacting particular populations.
- The IDM uses a 0 to 4 scale, overcoming the loss of detail and assumptions associated with categorising people as either ‘poor’ or ‘not poor.’ Knowing how poor individuals are, in what dimensions, matters for policy and programming, and assessing the effectiveness of action.
- The IDM survey is straightforward and relatively quick to administer, with particular value in data poor contexts given coverage of both economic and social dimensions.
- It is grounded in the views of people with lived experience of poverty about how it should be defined and measured, and what is required to be not poor, while also being comparable across contexts and over time.
- The IDM is policy relevant. It can help governments and organisations target poverty more effectively as well as help them measure success or failure, revealing what aspects of poverty are changing, by how much and for whom.